Work in Progress
We have our first project publication! Well done to Mike and Christina for being the first to get some of our thoughts out into the academic world.
Mike Slaven and Christina Boswell, ‘Why symbolise control? Irregular migration to the UK and symbolic policy-making in the 1960s’ in Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (2018)
[Open-access link] [Original link in JEMS]
Abstract: It has frequently been observed that irregular migration is a common object of symbolic policy-making: the use of cosmetic adjustments to signal action, rather than substantive measures that achieve stated goals. Yet there is little research analysing the considerations driving policy actors to adopt such approaches. Drawing on existing literature, we distinguish three theoretical accounts of symbolic policy-making: manipulation, compensation, and adaptation. We explore these accounts through examining the emergence of symbolic policies in UK immigration control in the 1960s. Through detailed archival research, we reconstruct the deliberations leading to a series of Home Office decisions to crack down on irregular entry – decisions which officials felt were not operationally sensible, but which were based on popular political narratives of the problem. We conclude that the UK’s adoption of symbolic policy was a clear case of adaptation: a series of concessions to simplistic notions of control that did not chime with official views of what would work, and which were reluctantly embraced for reasons of political expediency. In conclusion, we suggest the need for more fine-grained analysis of the deliberations underpinning decision making in bureaucracies, in order to produce more nuanced accounts of political rationalities in the area of immigration policy
Conferences and other events
Different members of the project team have presented papers at a wide range of conferences:
- Mike Slaven, “The Home Office’s Approach to Managing Migration in the 1960s”, History & Policy Home Office Presentation Programme, Home Office, Westminster (26 November 2018), see full blog post on this presentation
- Mike Slaven*, “Explaining the Immigration-Welfare State Policy Linkage in Western Europe” at Crisis of Governability? The Politics of Migration Governance in Latin America and Europe, Buenos Aires, Argentina (4 October 2018)
- Christina Boswell, “The Invention of Illegal Immigration: Constructing Immigration Control as a Social Problem in France and the UK”, keynote talk at Coimbra workshop (27 September 2018), see the slides here: ‘Coimbra problem construction’
- Mike Slaven*, “Outsourcing Immigration Control in Western Europe: Why Welfare Regimes?” ECPR General Conference, Hamburg (25 August 2018)
- Panel ‘Seeing ‘Illegal’ Immigrants: State Monitoring Practices in Europe and Beyond’, at the Council for European Studies in Glasgow (12 July 2017), see full blog post on this event
- ‘Seeing Illegal Immigrants’ workshop, University of Edinburgh (11 July 2017), see full blog post on this event
- Mike Slaven, ‘Unaccompanied child migrants from the Commonwealth’ at a Royal Society of Edinburgh workshop on unaccompanied child migrants at Edinburgh Napier University (17 May 2017), see full blog post on this presentation
* = although these talks were given by a single team member, they incorporated comparative work done by all three postdoctoral research fellows on the project
We have also organised our first public engagement events in London and Brussels. For full details, see our public engagement page.
Work in progress
Our team continue to reflect on their findings, even after the end of the project in September 2018. Here are some of the ideas that different team members are developing:
- Elisabeth has been developing an article about the remarkable database that the German state uses to keep track of and manage foreigners (the Ausländerzentralregister, AZR).
- For the 1970s, Sara has been gathering a lot of archival data on the emergence of the “trafficking of labour force” issue. She’s working on the relationship between employment and the emergence of “illegal” immigration as a problem in French immigration policy. She is interested in the adoption of the first legislations that draw direct linkage between illegal work and undocumented immigration in the 1970s. She is also interested in the development of administrative means to tackle this issue: the reinforcement of the labour inspection department at the same period and the creation of an interdepartmental taskforce to fight against trafficking of labour force”. She plans to write an article on this issue.
- For the 1990s, Sara’s empirical data collection is still going on. She is organising interviews with civil servants who were working in the 1990s in relation to immigration issues. The main focus of the research for this period has not been determined yet. Various issues might be further developed, but one event appears already of specific interest: the exceptional regularisation procedure decided in 1997 by Jean-Pierre Chevènement.
- Elisabeth, Mike and Sara have been discussing comparative issues that could be developed. The systematic association between “illegal” immigration and the asylum system is one of these issues that are currently explored. Another matter of interest is the link between migrants’ access to health care and monitoring of illegal immigration.
- Emile and Christina have been thinking through some of the more conceptual aspects of the project. In particular, they are interested in trying to identify to specific historical contexts and conditions that led to the emergence of “illegal” immigration in France and Britain. The hope is that they will be able to develop one or two articles on this question.